What is Azoospermia – Types, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What is Azoospermia

Azoospermia, also called “zero sperm count,” is a complicated male fertility problem that can make it very hard for a man to have a child.

This whole guide is meant to help you understand what azoospermia is. We will also talk about its different kinds, look into what causes it, talk about the most common signs and how to diagnose it, and give a full rundown of all the available medical treatments.

What is Azoospermia, which means “No Sperm Count”?

The disease is not very common; only about 1% of men have it. But it is one of the main reasons men can’t have children—couples who are trying to have a child need to know how common it is.

Types of Azoospermia

Based on where it comes from, azoospermia can be broken down into three main groups. Let’s look at them all together to get a better sense of them as a couple.

  1. Azoospermia before the testicles

Pre-testicular azoospermia happens when the hormones that control sperm production don’t work right, and there are no or very few sperm. Hormonal imbalances, certain medicines, systemic illnesses, or problems with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland are some of the most common things that can cause this condition.

  1. Azoospermia in the testicles

Testicular azoospermia is caused by problems in the testicles, which makes it hard to make sperm. It can be caused by genes, infections, radiation treatment, chemotherapy, or other conditions that hurt the testicles.

  1. Azoospermia after the testicles

Post-testicular azoospermia is when some blockages or barriers stop sperm from getting to the semen, so there are no or very few sperm. Some of the reasons for this are vasectomy, clogged ejaculatory ducts, or birth defects in the reproductive system.

What causes Azoospermia?

Now that you know what azoospermia is, let’s look at why it happens. This is important for correctly diagnosing and treating it. This can be broken down into two groups:

  1. Azoospermia that blocks

Obstructive azoospermia is when there is a physical blockage that stops sperm from being ejaculated, so there are no sperm. Some common reasons are having a vasectomy, not having a vas deferens at birth, or scarring from an illness or surgery.

  1. Azoospermia that doesn’t get in the way

Problems with making sperm are what cause non-obstructive azoospermia. Genetics, hormonal imbalances, exposure to toxins, or underlying medical problems that make it hard for the testicles to make sperm can all cause it.

Signs of Azoospermia

Often, there are no obvious signs or symptoms. Men who have this disease might not feel any pain or have changes in how they have sex. The first sign is usually the lack of sperm in ejaculation.

How to Diagnose Azoospermia

Now that you know what causes azoospermia and the different types of it, it’s time to talk about how to diagnose it, which requires a full medical exam. Usually, the following steps are taken:

  1. Review of medical history and physical exam

If you have azoospermia, a thorough medical history and physical check can help you figure out what might be causing it, like infections, surgeries, or being exposed to toxins.

  1. Analysis of Sperm

A semen sample analysis is the most important part of the evaluation process. A diagnosis is made when there are no sperm at all or a sperm count of 0 in the sperm.

  1. Checking for Hormones

To find out if hormonal changes are causing the condition, hormone levels are checked, especially those that affect reproduction (like FSH, LH, and testosterone).

  1. Testing for genes

If someone has non-obstructive azoospermia, they might be told to get genetic testing to find out if any genetic factors could be causing the disease.

  1. Imaging Tests

Scrotal ultrasound is one type of imaging test that can use to see the testicles and find any anatomical problems.

What Is The Best Treatment For Azoospermia Medically

The right way to treatment varies depending on the type of it and what’s causing it. Here are a few possible medical treatments:

  1. Taking Hormones

As a cure for azoospermia before the testicles form, hormone therapy may be given to fix hormonal imbalances and boost sperm production. The goal of this treatment is to get to the bottom of the problem and get the testicles to make sperm.

  1. Interventions in Surgery

For people with obstructed azoospermia often require surgery to remove blockages or rebuild the reproductive system. Some of the methods used to treat azoospermia are vasectomy reversal and epididymal sperm aspiration (TESA/PESA). Men who have blockages that keep sperm from getting to the semen do best with surgical choices.

  1. Methods of Assisted Reproduction (ART)

When sperm production is shallow, ART methods like in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can use to get sperm from outside the body and fertilize it. This way of treating works well when there aren’t many healthy sperm available for fertilization.

  1. Help with Genetics

People who have genetic causes can get genetic counseling to find out how likely it is that they will pass on these genetic conditions to their children and to look into choices like sperm donation or adoption. Genetic counseling helps couples decide how to plan their families by giving them more information.


Can Azoospermia cause pregnancy?

Yes, it makes natural conception difficult, yet couples can still conceive. Using recovered sperm for fertilization, IVF with ICSI can help. Couples with severe azoospermia can also donate sperm.

Is there a way to prevent Azoospermia?

Addressing risk factors can prevent it. A balanced diet, regular exercise, and stress management can enhance reproductive health and avoid the same. To avoid STDs, practice safe sex. Also, avoid environmental pollutants and heat that can impair sperm. Finally, be sure a vasectomy is reversible, or consider sperm banking to preserve fertility.


This also known as “zero sperm count,” is a disease that can make it very hard for a man to get pregnant. People and couples who are going through this problem need to know how common it is, what kinds of it there are, what causes them, what signs they show, and how to diagnose them. There are now many treatment choices for people with azoospermia who are having trouble getting pregnant.

Lastly, Azoospermia can cause a lot of emotional problems for people who have it and for partners who have it. It’s normal to feel inadequate, sad, and anxious. It’s important to get psychological help and counselling from a reputable fertility center like Ritu IVF Fertility Center to deal with these emotional issues and handle the difficult journey of infertility with strength and understanding.